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Frida je danska zvanična baza podataka za hranu, koja je validna zakonski za uzimanje informacija o nutritivnom sastavu namirnica za celuEvropu i Srbiju.
- Li, N., Jia, X., Chen, C. Y. O., Blumberg, J. B., Song, Y., Zhang, W., …& Chen, J. (2007). Almond consumption reduces oxidative DNA damage and lipid peroxidation in male smokers. The Journal of nutrition, 137(12), 2717-2722.
Smoking increases the risk of several chronic diseases associated with elevated oxidative stress status. Almonds are a good source of antioxidant nutrients and may diminish smoking-related biomarkers of oxidative stress. We investigated whether almond consumption decreases biomarkers of oxidative stress in young male smokers. We conducted a randomized, crossover clinical trial with 60 healthy male soldiers (18-25 y) who were habitual smokers (5-20 cigarettes/d) and supplemented their diet with 84 g almonds or 120 g pork (to control for calories) daily for 4 wk with a 4-wk washout period between treatment periods. In addition, 30 healthy nonsmoking men were provided the same daily serving of pork as reference comparison. Blood and urine were collected and assessed for biomarkers of oxidative stress. Baseline values of urinary 8-hydroxy-deoxyguanosine (8-OHdG) and malondialdehyde (MDA) and peripheral lymphocyte DNA strand breaks were significantly higher by 185, 64, and 97% in smokers than nonsmokers, whereas activities of plasma superoxide dismutase (SOD), glutathione peroxidase (GPX), and catalase were significantly lower by 15, 10, and 9%, respectively. After the almond intervention, serum alpha-tocopherol, SOD, and GPX increased significantly in smokers by 10, 35, and 16%, respectively and 8-OHdG, MDA, and DNA strand breaks decreased significantly by 28, 34, and 23%. In smokers, after almond supplementation, the concentration of 8-OHdG remained significantly greater than in nonsmokers by 98%. These results suggest almond intake can enhance antioxidant defenses and diminish biomarkers of oxidative stress in smokers.
- Jenkins, D. J., Kendall, C. W., Josse, A. R., Salvatore, S., Brighenti, F., Augustin, L. S., …& Rao, A. V. (2006). Almonds decrease postprandial glycemia, insulinemia, and oxidative damage in healthy individuals. The Journal of nutrition, 136(12), 2987-2992.
Strategies that decrease postprandial glucose excursions, including digestive enzyme inhibition, and low glycemic index diets result in lower diabetes incidence and coronary heart disease (CHD) risk, possibly through lower postprandial oxidative damage to lipids and proteins. We therefore assessed the effect of decreasing postprandial glucose excursions on measures of oxidative damage. Fifteen healthy subjects ate 2 bread control meals and 3 test meals: almonds and bread; parboiled rice; and instant mashed potatoes, balanced in carbohydrate, fat, and protein, using butter and cheese. We obtained blood samples at baseline and for 4 h postprandially. Glycemic indices for the rice (38 +/- 6) and almond meals (55 +/- 7) were less than for the potato meal (94 +/- 11) (P < 0.003), as were the postprandial areas under the insulin concentration time curve (P < 0.001). No postmeal treatment differences were seen in total antioxidant capacity. However, the serum protein thiol concentration increased following the almond meal (15 +/- 14 mmol/L), indicating less oxidative protein damage, and decreased after the control bread, rice, and potato meals (-10 +/- 8 mmol/L), when data from these 3 meals were pooled (P = 0.021). The change in protein thiols was also negatively related to the postprandial incremental peak glucose (r = -0.29, n = 60 observations, P = 0.026) and peak insulin responses (r = -0.26, n = 60 observations, P = 0.046). Therefore, lowering postprandial glucose excursions may decrease the risk of oxidative damage to proteins. Almonds are likely to lower this risk by decreasing the glycemic excursion and by providing antioxidants. These actions may relate to mechanisms by which nuts are associated with a decreased risk of CHD
- Wien, M., Bleich, D., Raghuwanshi, M., Gould-Forgerite, S., Gomes, J., Monahan-Couch, L., &Oda, K. (2010). Almond consumption and cardiovascular risk factors in adults with prediabetes. Journal of the American College of Nutrition, 29(3), 189-197.
OBJECTIVE:The authors tested the hypothesis that in adults with prediabetes, an almond-enriched American Diabetes Association (ADA) diet improves measures of insulin sensitivity and other cardiovascular risk factors compared with an ADA nut-free diet. DESIGN: Randomized parallel-group trial. SETTING: Outpatient dietary counseling and blood analysis. SUBJECTS: Sixty-five adult participants with prediabetes. INTERVENTION: Sixteen weeks of dietary modification featuring an ADA diet containing 20% of energy from almonds (approximately 2 oz per day). MEASURES OF OUTCOME: Outcomes included fasting glucose, insulin, total cholesterol (TC), low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C), high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C), triglycerides, TC:HDL-C, and HbA1c, which were measured at weeks 0, 8, and 16. Body weight, body mass index (BMI), waist circumference, blood pressure, and nutrient intake were measured at weeks 0, 4, 8, 12, and 16. RESULTS: The almond-enriched intervention group exhibited greater reductions in insulin (-1.78 µU/ml vs. +1.47 µU/ml, p = 0.002), homeostasis model analysis for insulin resistance (-0.48 vs. +0.30, p = 0.007), and homeostasis model analysis for beta-cell function (-13.2 vs. +22.3, p = 0.001) compared with the nut-free control group. Clinically significant declines in LDL-C were found in the almond-enriched intervention group (-12.4 mg/dl vs. -0.4 mg/dl) as compared with the nut-free control group. No changes were observed in BMI (-0.4 vs. -0.7 kg/m(2), p = 0.191), systolic blood pressure (-4.4 mm Hg vs. -3.5 mm Hg, p = 0.773), or for the other measured cardiovascular risk factors. CONCLUSIONS: An ADA diet consisting of 20% of calories as almonds over a 16-week period is effective in improving markers of insulin sensitivity and yields clinically significant improvements in LDL-C in adults with prediabetes.
- Berryman, C. E., West, S. G., Fleming, J. A., Bordi, P. L., & Kris‐Etherton, P. M. (2015). Effects of daily almond consumption on cardiometabolic risk and abdominal adiposity in healthy adults with elevated LDL‐cholesterol: a randomized controlled trial. Journal of the American Heart Association, 4(1), e000993.
BACKGROUND: Evidence consistently shows that almond consumption beneficially affects lipids and lipoproteins. Almonds, however, have not been evaluated in a controlled-feeding setting using a diet design with only a single, calorie-matched food substitution to assess their specific effects on cardiometabolic risk factors. METHODS AND RESULTS: n a randomized, 2-period (6 week/period), crossover, controlled-feeding study of 48 individuals with elevated LDL-C (149±3 mg/dL), a cholesterol-lowering diet with almonds (1.5 oz. of almonds/day) was compared to an identical diet with an isocaloric muffin substitution (no almonds/day). Differences in the nutrient profiles of the control (58% CHO, 15% PRO, 26% total fat) and almond (51% CHO, 16% PRO, 32% total fat) diets were due to nutrients inherent to each snack; diets did not differ in saturated fat or cholesterol. The almond diet, compared with the control diet, decreased non-HDL-C (-6.9±2.4 mg/dL; P=0.01) and LDL-C (-5.3±1.9 mg/dL; P=0.01); furthermore, the control diet decreased HDL-C (-1.7±0.6 mg/dL; P<0.01). Almond consumption also reduced abdominal fat (-0.07±0.03 kg; P=0.02) and leg fat (-0.12±0.05 kg; P=0.02), despite no differences in total body weight. CONCLUSIONS: Almonds reduced non-HDL-C, LDL-C, and central adiposity, important risk factors for cardiometabolic dysfunction, while maintaining HDL-C concentrations. Therefore, daily consumption of almonds (1.5 oz.), substituted for a high-carbohydrate snack, may be a simple dietary strategy to prevent the onset of cardiometabolic diseases in healthy individuals
- Bolling, B. W., McKay, D. L., & Blumberg, J. B. (2010). The phytochemical composition and antioxidant actions of tree nuts. Asia Pacific journal of clinical nutrition, 19(1), 117.
In addition to being a rich source of several essential vitamins and minerals, mono- and polyunsaturated fatty acids, and fiber, most tree nuts provide an array of phytochemicals that may contribute to the health benefits attributed to this whole food. Although many of these constituents remain to be fully identified and characterized, broad classes include the carotenoids, hydrolyzable tannins, lignans, naphthoquinones, phenolic acids, phytosterols, polyphenols, and tocopherols. These phytochemicals have been shown to possess a range of bioactivity, including antioxidant, antiproliferative, anti-inflammatory, antiviral, and hypocholesterolemic properties. This review summarizes the current knowledge of the carotenoid, phenolic, and tocopherol content of tree nuts and associated studies of their antioxidant actions in vitro and in human studies. Tree nuts are a rich source of tocopherols and total phenols and contain a wide variety of flavonoids and proanthocyanidins. In contrast, most tree nuts are not good dietary sources of carotenoids and stilbenes. Phenolic acids are present in tree nuts but a systematic survey of the content and profile of these compounds is lacking. A limited number of human studies indicate these nut phytochemicals are bioaccessible and bioavailable and have antioxidant actions in vivo.