Sve što je navedeno na našoj stranici o medu je podržano je adekvatnom literaturom. Spisak literature sa apstraktima možete videti ispod. Nismo u mogućnosti da objavimo cele tekstove, jer autorska prava naučnih časopisa to ne dozvoljavaju (iako ste platili pristup, nemate pravo da distrubuirate njihov sadržaj).
Evo šta možete pročitati u pojedinim referencama:
- Reference 1, 2 i 3 lepo sumiraju sve o nutritivnim svojstvima meda i njegovim pozitivnim uticajima na zdravlje;
- U referencama 5,6 i 7 možete pročitati sve o HMF-u, njegovom stvaranju u medu na visokim temperaturama i njegovim ozbiljno štetnim uticajima na naše zdravlje;
- U referencama 2 i 4 možete potvrditi da nauka stoji iza toga da je sirov med jedini pravi med i da na već 40 stepeni med gubi svoje ključne nutrijente;
- Reference 2 i 6 potvrđuju da se većina industrijskog meda zapravo zagreva preko dozvoljenih granica;
- U referencama od 8 do 11 možete naći sve o organskom medu, pravilnicima, i razlici u odnosu na konvencionalni med;
Ajibola, Abdulwahid, Joseph P. Chamunorwa, and Kennedy H. Erlwanger. “Nutraceutical values of natural honey and its contribution to human health and wealth.” Nutrition & metabolism 9.1 (2012): 61.
The use of natural honey (NH) as a nutraceutical agent is associated with nutritional benefits and therapeutic promises. NH is widely accepted as food and medicine by all generations, traditions and civilizations, both ancient and modern. The nutritional profiles, including its use in infant and children feeding reported in different literatures as well as health indices and biomarkers observed by various researchers are illustrated in this manuscript. The review documents folk medicine, experimentation with animal models, and orthodox medical practices shown by clinical trials. This covers virtually all human organs and body systems extensively studied by different workers. The sources and adverse effects of NH contamination, as well as the preventive methods are identified. This could promote the availability of residue free honey and a wholesome natural product for domestic consumption and international market. This could also help to prevent health problems associated with NH poisoning. In addition, apicultural practices and the economic importance of honey are well documented. This report also includes information about a relatively unknown and uncommon South American stingless bee species. We concluded this review by identifying important roles for Ethno-entomologists, other Scientists and Apiculturists in the development of stingless bees to boost honey production, consumption and economic earnings.
2. Barhate, R. S., et al. “Processing of honey using polymeric microfiltration and ultrafiltration membranes.” Journal of Food Engineering 60.1 (2003): 49-54.
Attempts were made to examine the rejection of enzymes in honey (50% diluted with water) with various molecular weight cutoff (MWCO) ultrafiltration (UF) membranes and the effectiveness of these membranes in eliminating yeast cells. The permeates of 25 000, 50 000 and 100 000 MWCO membranes did not show any diastase activity indicating that these UF membranes completely rejected amylases. The average permeate flux obtained with these membranes was between 0.90 and 1.15 kg/(m2 h). Membrane processing completely removed yeast cells that would result in improved stability of the processed honey. These studies also revealed that it is possible to produce clarified honey and enzyme enriched honey using a combination of microfiltration and UF membranes in the process.
3. Al, Mărghitaş Liviu, et al. “Physico-chemical and bioactive properties of different floral origin honeys from Romania.” Food Chemistry 112.4 (2009): 863-867.
In this study, we investigated and compared the physico-chemical properties (moisture, colour, ash, and sugars content) as well as total phenols, total flavonoids and antioxidant activity of several honey samples (24) collected from different regions of Romania. The physico-chemical values were in the range of approved limits (conforming to EU legislation); excepting the monosaccharide values for one sample (T2). For this sample, the other values were within legislation limits. The results obtained showed that the most valuable honey is the honeydew one. Correlation between RSA and total phenols and total flavonoids, respectively, was determined, and a positive correlation was found. This study demonstrates remarkable variation in antioxidant properties and content of total phenols in honey, depending on its botanic or geographic source.
4. Blasa, Manuela, et al. “Raw Millefiori honey is packed full of antioxidants.” Food Chemistry 97.2 (2006): 217-222.
Total polyphenols, flavonoids and antioxidant power of raw honey samples from two of the most common Italian varieties, i.e.,Millefiori and Acacia, were evaluated. Phenolic content, expressed as caffeic acid equivalents, ranged from 12.5 to 17.5 mg/100 g and from 3 to 11 mg/100 g in Millefiori and Acacia honeys, respectively. All Millefiori samples exhibited the highest flavonoid concentration being between 1.23 and 2.93 mg catechin equivalents (CE)/100 g honey. Total flavonoids in 100 g Acacia honeys were in the range of 0.45–1.01 mg CE. Acacia honeys had lower total antioxidant power, as assessed by ferric reducing/antioxidant power assay, than Millefiori. The relationship between phenolic content and antioxidant power was discussed. Comparative experimental analysis
was performed with an artificial honey and processed honeys. Raw Millefiori honey is rich in both amount and variety of antioxidant substances, and its inclusion in the diet may be recommended to complement other polyphenol sources.
5. Islam, Md, Md Khalil, and Siew Hua Gan. “Toxic compounds in honey.” Journal of applied toxicology 34.7 (2014): 733-742.
There is a wealth of information about the nutritional and medicinal properties of honey. However, honey may contain compounds that may lead to toxicity. A compound not naturally present in honey, named 5-hydroxymethylfurfural (HMF), may be formed during the heating or preservation processes of honey. HMF has gained much interest, as it is commonly detected in honey samples, especially samples that have been stored for a long time. HMF is a compound that may be mutagenic, carcinogenic and cytotoxic. It has also been reported that honey can be contaminated with heavy metals such as lead, arsenic, mercury and cadmium. Honey produced from the nectar of Rhododendron ponticum contains alkaloids that can be poisonous to humans, while honey collected from Andromeda flowers contains grayanotoxins, which can cause paralysis of limbs in humans and eventually leads to death. In addition, Melicope ternata and Coriaria arborea from New Zealand produce toxic honey that can be fatal. There are reports that honey is not safe to be consumed when it is collected from Datura plants (from Mexico and Hungary), belladonna flowers and Hyoscamus niger plants (from Hungary), Serjania lethalis (from Brazil), Gelsemium sempervirens (from the American Southwest), Kalmia latifolia, Tripetalia paniculata and Ledum palustre. Although the symptoms of poisoning due to honey consumption may differ depending on the source of toxins, most common symptoms generally include dizziness, nausea, vomiting, convulsions, headache, palpitations or even death. It has been suggested that honey should not be considered a completely safe food.
6. Annapoorani, A., et al. “Studies on the physicochemical characteristics of heated honey, honey mixed with ghee and their food consumption pattern by rats.” Ayu 31.2 (2010): 141.
Honey and ghee are the two food substances used widely in our diet. In Ayurveda, it is quoted that heated honey and honey mixed with equal amount of ghee produce deleterious effects. Hence, it was of our interest to study the physicochemical characteristics and chemical constituents of heated honey and honey mixed with ghee, and their effect on daily food intake and organ weights of rats. The specific gravity of samples showed a significant decrease in honey and ghee samples heated to 140°C. The pH of honey heated to 140°C was elevated with a reduction in the specific gravity. There was a significant rise in hydroxymethyl furfuraldehyde (HMF) in 60º and 140°C heated honey samples. The browning and total antioxidant of honey mixed ghee samples was significantly higher when compared to ghee samples. Further, the authors have also evaluated the effects of consumption of heated honey, ghee, honey mixed with equal amount of ghee and heated honey mixed with heated ghee in rats. The feeding of heated honey and honey mixed with ghee for 6 weeks showed no significant change in the food intake, weight gain and relative organ weights. The study revealed that the heated honey mixed with ghee produces HMF which may cause deleterious effects.
7. Husøy, T., et al. “Dietary exposure to 5-hydroxymethylfurfural from Norwegian food and correlations with urine metabolites of short-term exposure.” Food and Chemical Toxicology 46.12 (2008): 3697-3702.
5-Hydroxymethylfurfural (HMF) is formed in carbohydrate-rich food during acid-catalysed dehydration and in the Maillard reaction from reducing sugars. HMF is found in mg quantities per kg in various foods. HMF is mainly metabolised to 5-hydroxymethyl-2-furoic acid (HMFA), but unknown quantities of the mutagenic 5-sulphoxymethylfurfural (SMF) may also be formed, making HMF potentially hazardous to humans. We determined the HMF content in Norwegian food items and estimated the dietary intake of HMF in 53 volunteers by means of 24 h dietary recall. The estimated intakes of HMF were correlated with urinary excretion of HMFA. Coffee, prunes, dark beer, canned peaches and raisins had the highest levels of HMF. The 95th percentile of the estimated daily dietary intake of HMF and the 24 h urinary excretion of HMFA were 27.6 and 28.6 mg, respectively. Coffee, dried fruit, honey and alcohol were identified as independent determinants of urinary HMFA excretion. Most participants had lower estimated HMF intake than the amount of HMFA excreted in urine. In spite of this there was a significant correlation (r = 0.57, P < 0.001) between the estimated HMF intake and urinary HMFA. Further studies are needed to reveal alternative sources for HMF exposure.
8. PRAVILNIK O KVALITETU MEDA I DRUGIH PROIZVODA PČELA, (Objavljeno u „Službenom glasniku RS”, broj 101/15 od 8.decembra 2015. godine) http://www.mpzzs.gov.rs/download/Pravilnici/4827015.0127.63-1.pdf
9. Spisak publikacija Stefana Bogdanova (http://www.bee-hexagon.net/files/file/fileE/CurrVitae2011.pdf) koji je proznati biohemičar svetskog glasa i izvanredni poznavalac meda, osnivač Internacionalne komisije za med, jedan od autora evropskog pravilnika za med.
10. PRAVILNIK O KONTROLI I SERTIFIKACIJI U ORGANSKOJ PROIZVODNjI I METODAMA ORGANSKE PROIZVODNjE (Objavljen u „Službenom glasniku RS”, broj: 48/11) http://www.serbiaorganica.info/wp-content/uploads/2012/08/Pravilnik-o-kontroli-i-sertifikaciji-7.04.2011..pdf