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1. Callaway, J. C. “Hempseed as a nutritional resource: an overview.” Euphytica 140.1-2 (2004): 65-72.

Summary

The seed of Cannabis sativa L. has been an important source of nutrition for thousands of years in Old World cultures. Non-drug varieties of Cannabis, commonly referred to as hemp, have not been studied extensively for their nutritional potential in recent years, nor has hempseed been utilized to any great extent by the industrial processes and food markets that have developed during the 20th century. Technically a nut, hempseed typically contains over 30% oil and about 25% protein, with considerable amounts of dietary fiber, vitamins and minerals. Hempseed oil is over 80% in polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs), and is an exceptionally rich source of the two essential fatty acids (EFAs) linoleic acid (18:2 omega-6) and alpha-linolenic acid (18:3 omega-3). The omega-6 to omega-3 ratio (n6/n3) in hempseed oil is normally between 2:1 and 3:1, which is considered to be optimal for human health. In addition, the biological metabolites of the two EFAs, gamma-linolenic acid (18:3 omega-6; ‘GLA’) and stearidonic acid (18:4 omega-3; ‘SDA’), are also present in hempseed oil. The two main proteins in hempseed are edestin and albumin. Both of these high-quality storage proteins are easily digested and contain nutritionally significant amounts of all essential amino acids. In addition, hempseed has exceptionally high levels of the amino acid arginine. Hempseed has been used to treat various disorders for thousands of years in traditional oriental medicine. Recent clinical trials have identified hempseed oil as a functional food, and animal feeding studies demonstrate the long-standing utility of hempseed as an important food resource.

2. House, James D., Jason Neufeld, and Gero Leson. “Evaluating the quality of protein from hemp seed (Cannabis sativa L.) products through the use of the protein digestibility-corrected amino acid score method.” Journal of agricultural and food chemistry 58.22 (2010): 11801-11807.

The macronutrient composition and the quality of protein of hemp seed and products derived from hemp seed grown in Western Canada were determined. Thirty samples of hemp products (minimum 500 g), including whole hemp seed, hemp seed meal from cold-press expelling, dehulled, or shelled, hemp seed and hemp seed hulls, were obtained from commercial sources. Proximate analysis, including crude protein (% CP), crude fat (% fat) and fiber, as well as full amino acid profiles, were determined for all samples. Protein digestibility-corrected amino acid score (PDCAAS) measurements, using a rat bioassay for protein digestibility and the FAO/WHO amino acid requirement of children (2-5 years of age) as reference, were conducted on subsets of hemp products. Mean ((SD) percentage CP and fat were 24.0(2.1) and 30.4(2.7) for whole hemp seed, 40.7(8.8) and 10.2(2.1) for hemp seed meal, and 35.9(3.6) and 46.7(5.0) for dehulled hemp seed. The percentage protein digestibility and PDCAAS values were 84.1-86.2 and 49-53% for whole hemp seed, 90.8-97.5 and 46-51% for hemp seed meal, and 83.5-92.1 and 63-66% for dehulled hemp seed. Lysine was the first limiting amino acid in all products. Removal of the hull fraction improved protein digestibility and the resultant PDCAAS value. The current results provide reference data in support of protein claims for hemp seed products and provide evidence that hemp proteins have a PDCAAS equal to or greater than certain grains, nuts, and some pulses.

3. Raikos, Vassilios, Garry Duthie, and Viren Ranawana. “Denaturation and oxidative stability of hemp seed (Cannabis sativa L.) Protein isolate as affected by heat treatment.” Plant foods for human nutrition 70.3 (2015): 304-309.

Abstract The present study investigated the impact of heat treatments on the denaturation and oxidative stability of hemp seed protein during simulated gastrointestinal digestion (GID). Heat-denatured hemp protein isolate (HPI) solutions were prepared by heating HPI (2 mg/ml, pH 6.8) to 40, 60, 80 and 100 °C for 10 min. Heat-induced denaturation of the protein isolates was monitored by polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis. Heating HPI at temperatures above 80 °C significantly reduced solubility and led to the formation of large protein aggregates. The isolates were then subjected to in vitro GID and the oxidative stability of the generated peptides was investigated. Heating did not significantly affect the formation of oxidation products during GID. The results suggest that heat treatments should ideally remain below 80 °C if heat stability and solubility of HPI are to be preserved

4. Vonapartis, Eliana, et al. “Seed composition of ten industrial hemp cultivars approved for production in Canada.” Journal of Food Composition and Analysis 39 (2015): 8-12.

The objective of this study was to determine the seed chemical composition of ten industrial hemp cultivars grown in Que´ bec. The fatty acid and tocopherol composition, as well as the concentrations of crude protein, oil, ash, cellulose, hemicellulose and lignin were quantified. The seed oil concentration varied between 269 and 306 g/kg, while the crude protein concentration ranged between 238 and 280 g/kg. The hemp seed oil is mainly composed of unsaturated fatty acids, and the dominant fatty acids are linoleic acid (597 g/kg) and a-linolenic acid (170 g/kg). For all ten cultivars, g-tocopherol was present at a much higher concentration than d-tocopherol (2481 vs. 774 mg/g). Out of the ten cultivars analyzed, Anka was the richest in phenolics (5.16 g/100 g), whereas CRS-1 had the lowest phenolic content (1.37 g/100 g). Seed ash concentration ranged between 51 and 58 g/kg, while neutral detergent fibre and acid detergent fibre concentrations ranged between 327 and 388, and 259 and 298 g/kg, respectively. In conclusion, our results reveal noticeable differences among cultivars in terms of the essential fatty acid, oil, protein, and antioxidant content of industrial hemp seed. Collectively, this study suggests that the seed of Canada-grown hemp is a balanced health product.

5. Karimi, Isaac, and Hossein Hayatghaibi. “Effect of Cannabis sativa L. seed (Hempseed) on serum lipid and protein profiles of rat.” Pakistan Journal of Nutrition 5.6 (2006): 585-588.

6. Callaway, J. C. “Hemp as food at high latitudes.” Journal of Industrial Hemp 7.1 (2002): 105-117.

Hempseed offers a unique nutritional package, in terms of dietary oil, protein, vitamins and minerals, which can be produced at high latitudes (> 50° latitude). Hempseed oil is highly unsaturated and contains both essential fatty acids (linoleic acid and alpha-linolenic acid) in a nutritionally balanced ratio, in addition to considerable amounts of biochemically important gamma-linolenic acid (GLA) and stearidonic acid (SDA). The protein in hempseed is complete, in that it contains all of the essential amino acids in nutritionally significant amounts, and lacks the nutritional inhibiting factors found in soya. Hempseed could become a viable replacement for imported soya in Northern Europe, particularly as feed stock for animals.

O oksidaciji polinezasićenih masti možete pročitati ovde:

7. http://www.1life63.com/en/omega-in-your-body-oxidation-of-lipids/oxidation-of-lipids

Lipid oxidation could also refer to uncontrolled oxidative degradation of lipids initiated by free radicals stealing electrons, which is the first step in the formation of several cytotoxic and mutagenic substances in the body. Polyunsaturated fatty acids contain two or more double bonds, and it is these double bonds which are prone to oxidation. Consequently, the risk of oxidation increases with the number of double bonds present in the fatty acid.

8. Tao, L. “Oxidation of polyunsaturated fatty acids and its impact on food quality and human health.” Adv Food Technol Nutr Sci Open J 1.6 (2015): 135-142.

For many years, both preclinical and clinical studies have provided evidences to support the beneficial effects of ω-3 Polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs), particularly Eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) and Docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) in the prevention of chronic diseases. However, recently, an increasing number of studies reported adverse or contradictory effects of ω-3 PUFAs on human health. While dose and experimental condition need to be considered when evaluating these effects, oxidation of PUFAs also serves as an important factor contributing to the inconsistent results. In fact, oxidation of PUFAs happens frequently during food processing and storage, cooking and even after food ingestion. The free radicals and metabolites generated from PUFA oxidation may adversely affect food quality and shelf life by producing off-flavors and reducing nutritional values. The impact of PUFA oxidation in human health is more complicated, depending on the concentration of products, disease background and targets. This review will introduce different types of PUFA oxidation, discuss its impact on food quality and human health and provide some thoughts for the future research directions.

Ovde možete da pročitate nešto malo o mikotoksinima kako biste stekli uvodnu sliku o tome koliko je važno da vaš dobavljač semenki, žitarica i orašastih plodova zna sve o ovome, i da kontroliše svaki aspekt od rađanja biljke na polju do prodaje vama u prodavnicama. Ovo je jako teško danas naći za bilo koju hranu, međutim veoma je potrebno – ukoliko vodite računa o svom zdravlju.

9.  https://www.tehnologijahrane.com/enciklopedija/mikotoksini

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